The story of my experiments with truth. TRANSLATED FROM Uttamchand Gandhi, alias Ota Gandhi, my grandfather, must have been a man of principle. State. Mahatma Gandhi's autobiography, An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiment with Truth. Read online, download PDF version or read abridged version. THE STORY OF MY EXPERIMENTS WITH TRUTH by Mohandas K. Gandhi. EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION. The first edition of Danghiji's Autobiography was.
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Gandhi Autobiography or The Story of Experiments with Truth PDF, सत्याचे प्रयोग India of My Dreams: Download Complete Ebook free. Book Online. Copies It is not my purpose to attempt a real autobiography or story of my life. I simply truth, and as my life consists of nothing but those experiments, the story . My father, Karamchand Gandhi, to them, and Mohandas will have. M. K. Gandhi - An Autobiography or The Story of my Experiments “M. K. Gandhi – An Autobiography or The Story of my Experiments with Truth” is the story of Gandhi's life written by himself. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Download Gandhis autobiography as pdf ebook in full length here ( pages).
Most chapters are short and cover a brief episode or two in his life. His account is pretty much in chronological order.
The intro outlines his quest for truth, and the closing sums it up, so they show the big-picture message. Part One gives us Gandhi's birth October 2, , childhood, teens, and time in England. He's influenced as a kid by his religiously tolerant political official father and devout mother. At age 13! After a few years, she becomes preggo with the first of Gandhi's four children. Once Gandhi's father dies, a family friend suggests Gandhi go to England to study law to keep the family a high status one.
However, his caste tells him it's against their religion for him to travel abroad. Meanwhile, his mother is worried he'll lose his way in the foreign culture and start drinking alcohol, eating meat his family is vegetarian , and sleeping with women other than his wife, who's to stay at home in India while her husband has his big adventure.
Gandhi tells his caste he's definitely going to England, and they can go ahead and kick him out…which they do. As for his mother's concerns, Gandhi takes serious vows not to touch alcohol, meat, or other women. With that, he's off to England. After being called to the bar i.
An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth Summary & Study Guide Description
Part Two tells us all about his time in South Africa, where he goes to work with a law firm. He gets kicked off a train due to "color prejudice" which is what he calls racism , and he decides to fight back—non-violently, of course. This pivotal reason involved the "Indian Franchise Bill", with which the Natal legislature intended to deprive Indians of the right to vote.
No opposition existed against this bill, except among some of Gandhi's friends who asked him to stay in South Africa and work with them against this new injustice against Indians, who white South Africans disparagingly called "coolies. Even in Natal, where Indians had more influence, they were not allowed to go out after 9 p.
The new bill which prohibited Indians from voting in Natal only codified existing injustice in writing. Although a last-minute petition drive failed to the Indian Franchise Bill from passing, Gandhi remained active and organized a much larger petition, which he sent to the Secretary of State for the Colonies in London, and distributed to the press in South Africa, Britain and India.
The petition raised awareness of the plight of Indians and generating discussions in all three continents to the point where both the Times of London and the Times of India published editorials in support of the Indian right to the vote.
Gandhi also formed a new political organization called the Natal Indian Congress a clear reference to the Indian National Congress , which held regular meetings and soon, after some struggles with financing, started its own library and debating society.
He was also thrown of the Train when he didn't agree to move from his first class seat which he paid for. Though, at first, Gandhi intended to remain in South Africa for a month, or a year at most, he ended up working in South Africa for about twenty years. After his initial assignment was over, he succeeded in growing his own practice to about twenty Indian merchants who contracted manage their affairs.
This work allowed him to both earn a living while also finding time to devote to his mission as a public figure. During his struggle against inequality and racial discrimination in South Africa, Gandhi became known among Indians all around the world as "Mahatma," or "Great Soul.
PDF My Experiments with truth An Autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi NPD Read Online
In , Gandhi made a brief return to India and returned with his wife and children. For the first time, Gandhi realized that Indians had come to admire his work greatly and experienced a taste of his own popularity among the people, when he visited Madras, an Indian province, where most manual laborers had originated. Although his fellow-Indians greeted him in large crowds with applause and adulation, he sailed back to South Africa with his family in December Gandhi had become very well known in South Africa as well, to the point where a crowd of rioters awaited him at Port Natal, determined that he should not be allowed to enter.
Many of them also mistakenly believed that all the dark-skinned passenger on the ship that took Gandhi to Natal were poor Indian immigrants he had decided to bring along with him, when, in reality, these passengers were mostly returning Indian residents of Natal.
Fortunately, Gandhi was able to establish a friendly relationship with the British in South Africa so the Natal port's police superintendent and his wife escorted him to safety.
After this incident, local white residents began to actually regard him with greater respect. As Gandhi resumed his work at the Natal Indian Congress, his loyalty to the British guided him to assist them in the Boer War, which started three years later. Because Gandhi remained a passionate pacifist, he wanted to participate in the Boer War without actually engaging in violence so he organized and led an Indian Medical Corps which served the British in a number of battles, including the important battle of Spion Kop in January At the time, Gandhi believed that the British Empire shared the values of liberty and equality that he himself embraced and that, by virtue of defending those principles, the British constitution deserved the loyalty of all British subjects, including Indians.
He viewed racist policy in South Africa as a temporary characteristic aberration, rather than a permanent tendency. With respect to the British in India, at this point in his life, Gandhi considered their rule beneficial and benevolent.
The armed conflict between the British and Dutch raged on for over three years of often brutal fighting with the British conquering the Transvaal and Orange Free state territories. Gandhi expected that the British victory would establish justice in South Africa and present him with an opportunity to return to India.
He wanted to attend the meeting of the Indian National Congress, whose mission was to provide a social and political forum for the Indian upper class.
Founded in by the British, the Congress had no real political power and expressed pro-British positions. Gandhi wanted to attend its meeting nevertheless, as he was hoping to pass a resolution in support of the Indian population in South Africa.
Before he left for Bombay, Gandhi promised the Natal Indian Congress that he would return to support their efforts, should they need his help.
As Gandhi attended the Indian National Congress, his hopes came true.
Gokhale, one of the most prominent Indian politicians of the time, supported the resolution for the rights of Indians in South Africa and the resolution passed.
Through Gokhale, in whose house Gandhi stayed for a month, Gandhi met many political connections that would serve him later in life.
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However, his promise to always aid his friends in Natal soon prompted him to return to South Africa, when he received an urgent telegram informing him that the British and Boers had now formed a peaceful relationship and often acted together to the detriment of the Indian population, as Britain was planning to live local white individuals in power in South Africa, much like it had done in Canada and Australia.
Gandhi travelled back to South Africa immediately and met with Joseph Chamberlain, Secretary of State for the Colonies, and presented him with a paper on the injustice against the Indian population but Chamberlain indicated that the Indians would have to obey the new rulers of South Africa, now called the "Afrikaners," which included both Dutch and British local settlers.
Gandhi began to organize a fast response to this new South African political configuration. Instead of working in Natal, he now established a camp in the newly conquered Transvaal region and began helping Indians who had escaped from the war in that region, and now had to download overly expensive re-entry passes.
He also represented poor Indians whose dwellings in a shantytown the authorities had dispossessed. Gandhi also started a new magazine, Indian Opinion, that advocated for political liberty and equal rights in South Africa. The magazine, which initially included several young women from Europe, expanded its staff around the country, increasing both Gandhi's popularity and the public support for his ideas.
At round same time, Gandhi read John Ruskin's book Unto This Last , which maintained that the life of manual labor was superior to all other ways of living. As he adopted this belief, Gandhi chose to abandon Western dress and habits, and he moved his family and staff to a Transvaal farm called the Phoenix, where he even gave renounced the use of an oil-powered engine and printed Indian Opinion by hand-wheel, and performed agriculture labor using old, manual farming equipment. He began to conceive of his public work as a mission to restore old Indian virtue and civilization, rather than fall prey to modern Western influence, which included electricity and technology.
Between and , he also changed another aspect of his personal life by achieving Brahmacharya, or the voluntary abstention from sexual relations. He made this choice as part of his philosophy of selflessness and self-restraint. Finally, he also formulated his own philosophy of political protest, called Satyagraha, which literally meant "truth-force" in Sanskrit.
In practice, this practice meant protesting injustice steadfastly, but in a non-violent manner.
He put this theory into practice on September 8, , when, at a large gathering of the Indian community in Transvaal, he asked the whole community to take a vow of disobedience to the law, as the Transvaal government had started an effort to register every Indian child over the age of eight, which would make them an official part of the South African population.
Setting a personal example, Gandhi became the first Indian to appear before a magistrate for his refusal to register, and he was sentenced to two months in prison. He actually asked for a heavier sentence, a request, consistent with his philosophy of self-denial.
After his release, Gandhi continued his campaign and thousands of Indians burned their registration cards, crossing the Transvaal-Natal border without passes. Many went to jail, including Gandhi, who went to jail again in Gandhi did not waiver when a South African General by the name of Jan Christiaan Smuts promised to eliminate the registration law, but broke his word. Gandhi went all the way to London in and gathered enough support among the British to convince Smuts to eliminate the law in Yet, the Transvaal Prime Minister continued to regard Indians as second-class citizens while the Cape Colony government passed another discriminatory law making all non-Christian marriages illegal, which meant that all Indian children would be considered born out of wedlock.
In addition, the government in Natal continued to impose crippling poll tax for entering Natal only upon Indians. In response to these strikingly unjust rules, Gandhi organized a large-scale satyagraha, which involved women crossing the Natal-Transvaal border illegally. When they were arrested, five thousand Indian coal miners also went on strike and Gandhi himself led them across the Natalese border, where they expected arrest.
Although Smuts and Gandhi did not agree on many points, they had respect for each other. In , Smuts relented due to the sheer number of Indians involved in protest and negotiated a settlement which provided for the legality of Indian marriages and abolished the poll tax. Further, the import of indentured laborers from India was to be phased out by In July , Gandhi sailed for Britain, now admired as "Mahatma," and known throughout the world for the success of satyagraha.
Gandhi was in England when World War I started and he immediately began organizing a medical corps similar to the force he had led in the Boer War, but he also faced health problems that caused him to return to India, where he met the applauding crowds with enthusiasm once again. Indians continued to refer to him as "Mahatma" or "Great Soul," an appellation reserved only for the holiest men of Hinduism.
While Gandhi accepted the love and admiration of the crowds, he also insisted that all souls were equal and did not accept the implication of religious sacredness that his new name carried. In order to retreat into a life of humility and restraint, as his personal principles mandated, he decided to withdraw from public life for a while spending his first year in India focusing on his personal quest for purity and healing.
He also lived in a communal space with untouchables, a choice which many of his financial supporters resented, because they believed that the very presence of untouchables defiled higher-caste Indians. Gandhi even considered moving to a district in Ahmedabad inhabited entirely by the untouchables when a generous Muslim merchant donated enough money to keep up his current living space for another year.
By that time, Gandhi's communal life with the untouchables had become more acceptable. Although Gandhi had withdrawn from public life, he briefly met with the British Governor of Bombay and future Viceroy of India , Lord Willington, whom Gandhi promised to consult before he launched any political campaigns. Gandhi also felt the impact of another event, the passing of G.
Gokhale, who had become his supporter and political mentor. He stayed away from the political trend of Indian nationalism, which many of the members of the Indian National Congress embraced. Instead, he stayed busy resettling his family and the inhabitants of the Phoenix Settlement in South Africa, as well as the Tolstoy Settlement he had founded near Johannesburg.
For this purpose, on May 25, , he created a new settlement, which came to be known as the Satyagraha ashram derive from Sanskrit word "Satya" means "truth" near the town of Ahmedabad and close to his place of birth in the western Indian province of Gujarati. All the inhabitants of the ashram, which included one family of untouchables, swore to poverty and chastity.
After a while, Gandhi became influenced by the idea of Indian independence from the British, but he dreaded the possibility that a westernized Indian elite would replace the British government. He developed a strong conviction that Indian independence should take place as a large-scale sociopolitical reform, which would remove the old plagues of extreme poverty and caste restrictions.
In fact, he believed that Indians could not become worthy of self-government unless they all shared a concern for the poor. As Gandhi resumed his public life in India in , he delivered a speech at the opening of the new Hindu University in the city of Benares, where he discussed his understanding of independence and reform.
He also provided specific examples of the abhorrent living conditions of the lower classes that he had observed during his travels around India and focused specifically on sanitation. Although the Indians of the higher-castes did not readily embrace the ideas in the speech, Gandhi had now returned to public life and he felt ready to convert these ideas to actions. Facing the possibility of arrest, just like he always did in South Africa, Gandhi first spoke for the rights of impoverished indigo-cultivators in the Champaran district.
His efforts eventually led to the appointment of a government commission to investigate abuses by the indigo planters. He also interefered whenever he saw violence.
When a group of Ahmedabad mill workers went on strike and became violent, he resolved to fast until they returned to peace. Though some political commentators condemned Gandhi's behavior as a form of blackmail, the fast only lasted three days before the workers and their employers negotiated an agreement.
Through this situation, Gandhi discovered the fast as one of his most effective weapons in late years and set a precedent for later action as part of satyagraha. As the First World War continued, Gandhi also became involved in recruiting men for the British Army, an involvement which his followers had a difficult time accepting, after listening to his passionate speeches about resisting injustice in a non-violent manner.
Not surprisingly, at this point, although Gandhi still remained loyal to Britain and enamored with the ideals of the British constitution, his desire to support and independent home rule became stronger. As time passed, Gandhi became exhausted from his long journey around the country and fell ill with dysentery. He refused conventional treatment and chose to practice his own healing methods, relying on diet and spending a long time bedridden, while in recovery in his ashram.
AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY OR The story of my experiments with truth
While the British alleged that they fought to protect the rights of small states and independent peoples from tyranny, in India, an increasing number of people found this alleged commitment less than genuine.
After the end of the war, the British government decided to follow the recommendations of the Rowlatt Committee, which advocated the retention of various wartime restrictions in India, including curfews and measures to suppress free speech.
Gandhi was still sick when these events took place and, although he could not protest actively, he felt his loyalty to the British Empire weaken significantly.
Later, when the Rowlatt Act actually became law, Gandhi proposed that the entire country observe a day of prayer, fasting, and abstention from physical labor as a peaceful protest against the injustice of the oppressive law. Gandhi's plea generated an overwhelming response as millions of Indians did not go to work on April 6, As the entire country stood still, the British arrested Gandhi, which provoked angry crowds to fill the streets of India's cities and, much to Gandhi's dislike, violence erupted everywhere.
Gandhi could not tolerate violence so he called off his campaign and asked that everyone return to their homes. He acted in accordance with his firm belief that if satyagraha could not be carried out without violence, it should not take place at all.
Unfortunately, not all protesters shared Gandhi's conviction as ardently. In Amritsar, capital of the region known as the Punjab, where the alarmed British authorities had deported the local Hindu and Muslim members of the Congress, the street mobs became very violent and the British summoned Brigadier-General Reginald E.
Dyer to restore order. Dyer prohibited all public meetings and instituted public whippings for Indians who approached British policemen. Despite these new regulations, a crowd of over ten thousand protesters gathered in the center of Armitsar, and Dyer responded with bringing his troops there and opening fire without warning.
Tightly packed together, the protesters had nowhere to run from the fire, even when they threw themselves down on the ground the fire was then directed on the ground, ceasing only when the British troops no longer had ammunition.
Hundreds died and many more were wounded. This unfortunate occurrence became known as the Amritsar Massacre, it outraged the British public almost as much as Indian society. The authorities in London eventually condemned Dyer's conduct, forcing him to resign in disgrace. The effect the massacre had on Indian society became even more profound as more moderate politicians, like Gandhi, now began to wholeheartedly support the idea of Indian independence, creating an intense climate of mutual hostility.Anu Bandopadhyaya Forwarded by: Speeches and Writings of M.
He stays for just one semester and then decides to go to England where he can become a barrister in three years. Gandhiji often thought about miniature satyagraha. Gandhi Edited by: