Les piqûres de scorpion représentent la première cause d'intoxication avec une incidence de 30 à 50 % de l'ensemble des intoxications déclarés au centre. 3 days ago Article (PDF Available) in Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie In fact, the scorpion stings occur accidentally, independent of age or sex [9. Elle doit être renseignée par le médecin traitant, pour tous les cas de piqûre de scorpion qui consultent en premier recours dans une structure.

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Les piqûres de scorpion constituent dans un certain nom- bre de pays à scorpion piqûre envenimation épidémiologie province de Khouribga. Maroc. Maghreb. SCORPIONS ET PIQURES DE SCORPIONS EN JORDANIE I ' r r S.. \ \ l l i i * t. l i. 1,..l l Y t,. \ \ l) i * 1. lil\i/. icvamlakunsva.ga\.ll {**r, S. S..\ll r t \ l). l) l. l. ' o S S l, {l. Au Maroc, sa gravité est due à la diversité des genres de la famille des La létalité du venin de scorpion touche en priorité les enfants. [icvamlakunsva.gao. fr/ documents/articles-bull/Tpdf]Google Scholar . Faraj Z, Semlali I ( ) Conduite à tenir devant une piqûre de scorpion au Maroc.

Allergic reactions to the antivenom, in the form of a skin rash, were observed in 4. Patients with positive skin tests were not given antivenom cases. Moreover, 70 cases refused injection with antivenom.

In addition to the child that failed to reach the hospital in time, a total of cases did not receive antivenom. Table 7 shows factors affecting the dose of antivenom. According to the protocol, all patients should receive five ampoules but the protocol was not followed by all doctors. Age and weight did not affect the dose given, but the dose was modified by some doctors according to the clinical presentation. Discussion The incidence of scorpion stings detected is clearly higher than that reported from the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya [3].

The higher incidence of scorpion stings in those over 15 years of age indicates outdoor biting.

This is mainly because many are shepherds and because of the habit of enjoying the desert during leisure time. This is also seen from the increased frequency of stings during summer rather than winter. Males were more affected than females and this also indicates outdoor exposure to scorpions. The most common sting site was the foot, in cases In addition, adults were more affected.

Therefore, a well planned health education programme might be useful in preventing stings by advocating the use of shoes and care in handling stones, clothes and bed sheets. Females were affected by more stings in the hands than males, which is attributed to their being stung while cleaning debris or removing stones.

Environmental sanitation at and around houses will help to avoid these kinds of stings. A great proportion of cases had suffered previous stings, so health education of those affected by stings should prevent further incidents. The scorpion is a nocturnal arthropod. Unable to tolerate high temperatures, it seeks protection from the heat during the day by sheltering under rocks or debris [5].

Scorpion envenomation and serotherapy in Morocco.

Both the nocturnal predatory pattern and the seasonal hibernatory cycle are supported by the data in this study. In addition, increased frequency of stings during the night may be due to the increased risk of accidental contact with the scorpion in the darkness.

Thus, the use of a light source while walking or camping at night in the desert will help to avoid contact with scorpions and other venomous animals. Infants and children were severely affected by toxicity of envenomation. This is attributed to their small body mass, a proportionately greater number of stings to the head, neck and body and their poor withdrawal reflex when suffering a sting; this latter factor gives the scorpion chance to inject more venom and to inflict multiple stings.

Therefore, local treatment seems to be more important in infants and preschool children than in adults. History of the colour of scorpion was not informative. Both those who reported being affected by black or yellow scorpions developed symptoms and signs of toxicity although the black scorpion is described as being of low toxicity [6].

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As regards symptoms and signs of envenomation, tachycardia was common in our study, but it was the only sign in a large number of cases and could not be regarded in such cases as a sign of toxicity. Hypertension was common among the elderly but most of these cases were mild and they required no medication for hypertension.

Our results support those described by Dittrich et al [7]. The role of antivenom treatment is not clearly established. A World Health Organization publication states that "antivenoms are among the few pharmacological agents in widespread use today whose therapeutic value remains largely untested by clinical trial" [8].

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However, antivenom has been found effective against stings from some species such as Crotalus exilicauda in Arizona [9]. Symptomatic treatment without the use of antivenom was successful in the management of cases of scorpion stings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, without any deaths [6].

The clinical conditions of these patients were not severe. This is due to a greater prevalence of more toxic species.

In this study, a much lower case fatality rate was found 0. The good prognosis of scorpion stings suggests a beneficial role of the antivenom in the management of scorpion stings. However, spontaneous recovery due to being affected by a less toxic scorpion species is possible. According to the guidelines set by the Saudi Ministry of Health for treatment of scorpion stings, the dose of antivenom was changed from one to five ampoules, 1 ml antivenom.

Thus, some patients were treated with one ampoule and other patients received five ampoules. In addition, some doctors at PHC centres did not adhere to the protocol and gave variable doses, from one to six ampoules, according to the severity of the symptons.

We suggest that the use of antivenom should be restricted to those showing systemic manifestations of envenomation and only be used after skin testing because of the common allergic reactions encountered.

In conclusion, the high incidence of scorpion stings in Hail region suggests the necessity of preventive programmes for decreasing the incidence. Such programmes could start by educating those affected by scorpion stings on how to avoid further stings. In addition, local treatment is particularly important for infants and preschool children. Finally, the use of antivenom should be restricted to those with systemic manifestations as it is better kept for such cases. Poisonous snakes in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Types, breeding sites and prevention against its toxins, 2nd ed. Plorde J. Diseases caused by bites and stings. In: Harrison's principles of internal medicine, 10th ed. Petersdorf et al. New York, McGraw-Hill, Warrell D.

Animal poisons.

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In: Manson's tropical diseases. Warrell DA et al. Comparison of Pasteur and Behringwerk antivenoms in envenoming by the carpet viper Echis carinatus. British medical journal, , Brownell PH.

Prey detection by the sand scorpion. Scientific American, , Neale JR. Scorpion sting syndrome in eastern Riyadh.

In: Envenimations. Paris, Arnette, pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. Clot-Faybesse O, Devaux C, Rochat H, Guieu R In vivo neurotoxicity of Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom: evidence that the supra-thoracic nervous system is not implicated in the clinical manifestations. Devaux C, Jouirou B, Naceur Krifi M, et al Quantitative variability in the biodistribution and in toxinokinetic studies of the three main alpha toxins from the Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom.

El Hafny B, Chgoury F, Adil N, et al Intraspecific variability and pharmacokinetic characteristics of Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus scorpion venom.

El Hafny B, Ghalim N Evolution clinique et taux circulants du venin dans les envenimations scorpioniques au Maroc. Goyffon M Le scorpionisme. Rev Fr Lab —48 Google Scholar Biofutur 26 —23 Google Scholar Ismail M The treatment of the scorpion envenoming syndrome: the Saudi experience with serotherapy. Ismail M, Abd-Elsalam MA Serotherapy of scorpion envenoming: Pharmacokinetics of antivenoms and critical assessment of their usefulmess.

Toxicon 34 2 CrossRef Google Scholar Karren JB Scorpions. Extension Entomology 68 Google Scholar Khattabi A, Soulaymani-Bencheikh R, Achour S, et al Classification of clinical consequences of scorpion stings: consensus development. Aarhus University Press, Aarhus, pp.The anti-toxicity effects of Parkinsonia Aculeate against scorpion venom ButhotusSaulcyi : In vivo and in vitro studies.

Avoid exposure of applied area s to the sun. The study involved all cases of scorpion stings that were admitted to all PHC centres and hospitals in Hail region during the month period from the beginning of June to the end of August The form collected personal data, data about conditions of the sting, the clinical picture and the treatment with antivenom.

Essential oils should not be applied to the eyes, the eye contour area, neither into the ears. The incidence of scorpion stings and treatment by antivenom were studied.

In: Harrison's principles of internal medicine, 10th ed. The clinical conditions of these patients were not severe. Snakebites in Iran: Diagnosis, Prevention, Treatment.

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